Lesson 1: The Customer Journey
By the end of this lesson, you should be able to map a customer journey using key touch points and a marketing framework.
Complete the activities below before the live class on Thursday 26th February.
This lesson should take no more than three hours to complete in total: the pre- and post-class activities should take no more than two hours to complete and the live class lasts one hour. The pre-class activities will be explored in the class.
- The Customer Journey to Online Purchase
- Guide to measurement
- YouTube – Moments of Truth
- How to create a Customer Journey Map
- Zero Moment of Truth (ZMOT) Collection
The four moments of truth are:
Zero Moment of Truth (ZMOT). Introduced by Google, it’s what people search for and find after encountering the stimulus that directs their next steps. As Google itself puts it, this is “that moment when you grab your laptop, mobile phone or some other wired device and start learning about a product or service you’re thinking about trying or buying.”
First Moment of Truth (FMOT). Introduced by Proctor & Gamble (P&G), it’s what people think when they see your product, and the impressions they form when they read the words describing your product. “It is in these precious moments that P&G believes marketers must focus efforts on converting shoppers into customers,” Solis explains.
Second Moment of Truth (SMOT). Furthering P&G’s thinking, it’s what people feel, think, see, hear, touch, smell and (sometimes) taste as they experience your product over time. It’s also how your company supports them in their efforts throughout the relationship.
Ultimate Moment of Truth (UMOT). A stage that Solis introduces brings to light the importance of shared experiences and why organizations must first design them rather than just react. It’s that shared moment at every step of the experience that becomes the next person’s ZMOT.
“When we talk about the idea of experience,” Solis argues, “it’s not only in reference to User Experience (UX) or Customer Experience, it’s also about Information Experience … what’s shared, what comes back, what people are sharing about those experiences. Like SEO (Search Engine Optimization), these moments can be predetermined and optimized.”
ZMOT is fundamentally about getting closer to the customer. To do this, you need to understand them. What are they looking for? When? What information do they have already? What’s their state of mind?
Influencers for shopping behaviour
We recently conducted a study to understand the emotional benefits that drive and influence shopping behavior. Those benefits, we found, include the satisfaction of deep needs for self-creation, mastery, security and connection.
The process of meeting those shopper needs begins at the Zero Moment of Truth.
A Zero Moment of Truth is:
- A BUSY MOM IN A MINIVAN, looking up decongestants on her mobile phone as she waits to pick up her son at school.
- AN OFFICE MANAGER AT HER DESK, comparing laser printer prices and ink cartridge costs before heading to the office supply store.
- A STUDENT IN A CAFE, scanning user ratings and reviews while looking for a cheap hotel in Barcelona.
- A WINTER SPORTS FAN IN A SKI STORE, pulling out a mobile phone to look at video reviews of the latest snowboards.
- A YOUNG WOMAN IN HER CONDO, searching the web for juicy details about a new guy before a blind date.
ZMOT is that moment when you grab your laptop, mobile phone or some other wired device and start learning about a product or service (or potential boyfriend) you’re thinking about trying or buying. I
- The buying decision journey has changed. ZMOT is a vital new addition to the classic three-step process of stimulus, shelf, experience.
- What was once a message is now a conversation. Shoppers today find and share their own information about products, in their own way, on their own time.
- Word of mouth is stronger than ever. For the first time in human history, word of mouth is a digitally archived medium.
- No MOT is too small. If consumers will do research online for houses and health care, they’ll also do it for Band-Aids and ballpoint pens.
- The MOTs are meeting. Our mobile devices are MOT machines. As mobile usage grows, the zero, first and second moments of truth are converging.
Just how important is ZMOT in driving decisions?
The data revealed that the average shopper used 10.4 sources of information to make a decision in 2011, up from 5.3 sources in 2010.2 Yes, that number nearly doubled in one year — which shows you just how tough it is for marketers to grab the attention of consumers today. Shoppers are swimming in information. Those 10.4 sources range from TV commercials and magazine articles, to recommendations from friends and family, to websites, ratings and blogs online.
What makes a Zero Moment of Truth?
- It happens online — typically starting with a search on Google, Bing, Yahoo, YouTube or any other search tool or engine.
- It happens in real time, at any time of the day. More and more, it happens on the go: mobile searches on Google doubled last year.1
- The consumer is in charge, pulling the information she wants rather than having it pushed on her by others.
- It’s emotional. The consumer has a need she wants to satisfy, and an emotional investment in finding the best solution.
- The conversation is multi-way: marketers, friends, strangers, websites and experts all have their say and compete for attention.
What does word of mouth look like online?
- Consumers talking directly through email, social networks, chat and IMs, or posting videos on YouTube and other sites
- Reviews on sites like Epinions, TripAdvisor, DealerRater and Yelp
- Comments and ratings that show up next to businesses on applications like Google Maps
- Message boards on corporate and retail sites of all kinds
- Online community sites where moms, golfers, chefs or skateboarders compare notes and share information
- Seller ratings in search results (search for “kids bikes” on Google and you’ll see the stars right at the top)
Path to purchase (link)
The 20th century path to purchase looked like this:
- Consumer receives a stimulus, such as a TV ad or a magazine story, making him aware of the product.
- Consumer sees message, such as the TV ad, 5-12 times before taking action.
- Consumer goes to store to buy product (First Moment of Truth).
- Consumer experiences product (Second Moment of Truth) and decides whether to buy again — or perhaps to return the product.
For 20th century marketers, that meant making sure the consumer saw the product repeatedly with billboards, TV ads, and other opportunities to push the product in the consumer’s face.
The internet has changed that. Now the path to purchase looks like this:
- Consumer receives a stimulus, such as an ad or a Pinterest pin, making him aware of the product.
- Consumer intentionally checks out online information — 7 to 9 sources on average according to Google, so it’s probably still 5 to 12 contacts with the message.
- Consumer makes tentative decision to buy (Zero Moment of Truth).
- Consumer goes to store or website to buy product (First Moment of Truth).
- Consumer experiences product (Second Moment of Truth) and writes about product online, sharing snaps at Facebook or a review at Amazon.
What’s different? First, a lot of this happens online, whether the sale takes place online or in a physical store. Since this is more trackable and cheaper than traditional advertising, this fact makes the playing field a bit more level for CPG companies and retailers of different sizes.
Second, the consumer is in charge. The initial stimulus may still be an ad — though it’s increasingly likely to be social media, including blog posts — but the consumer doesn’t rely on the company for information after the initial stimulus.
Instead of waiting to see more ads, consumers actively look for further information — via Google, at the company website, at blogs, on Amazon, or by asking friends at Twitter or Facebook.
This means that marketing content has to show up in search and/or in the consumer’s social media stream, that it has to be good enough for the consumer to go to it intentionally, and that it has to be accurate — the consumer is comparing your product’s story with what other people say about your product.
This gives you multiple points at which to encourage the consumer along the path to purchase.